Computer Science 401 Homework Assignment 1 (Python代写,Natural Language Processing代写,北美程序代写,加拿大程序代写,University of Toronto代写,CS401代写)

This assignment will give you experience with a social media corpus (i.e., a collection of posts from Reddit), Python programming, part-of-speech (PoS) tags, sentiment analysis, and machine learning with scikit-learn.

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本次CS代写的主要涉及如下领域: Python代写,Natural Language Processing代写,北美程序代写,加拿大程序代写,University of Toronto代写,CS401代写

Computer Science 401 7 January 2020 St. George Campus University of Toronto

Homework Assignment #
Due: Monday, 10 February 2020 at 19h00 (7pm)

Red team, blue team: Identifying political persuasion on Reddit

TAs: Julia Watson ([email protected]) and Krishnapriya Vishnubhotla (vkpriya@cs)


This assignment will give you experience with a social media corpus (i.e., a collection of posts from Reddit), Python programming, part-of-speech (PoS) tags, sentiment analysis, and machine learning with scikit-learn. Your task is to split posts into sentences, tag them with a PoS tagger that we will provide, gather some feature information from each post, learn models, and use these to classify political persuasion. Sentiment analysis is an important topic in computational linguistics in which we quantify subjective aspects of language. These aspects can range from biases in social media for marketing, to a spectrum of cognitive behaviours for disease diagnosis. Please check the course bulletin boardfor announcements and discussion pertaining to this assignment.

Reddit Corpus

We have curated data from Redditby scraping subreddits, using Pushshift, by perceived political affiliation. Table 1 shows the subreddits assigned to each of four categories: left-leaning, right-leaning, center/neutral, and ‘alternative facts’. Although the first three (at least) are often viewed as ordinal segments on a unidimensional spectrum, here we treat these categories as nominal classes. Here, we use the terms ‘post’ and ‘comment’ interchangeably to mean ‘datum’, i.e., a short segment of user-produced text.

Left (598,944) Center (599,872) Right (600,002) Alt (200,272)
twoXChromosomes (7, 720 ,661) news (2, 782 ,9911) theNewRight (19,466) conspiracy (6, 767 ,099)
occupyWallStreet (397,538) politics (60, 354 ,767) whiteRights (118,008) 911truth (79,868)
lateStageCapitalism (634,962) energy (416,926) Libertarian (3, 886 ,156)
progressive (246,435) canada (7, 225 ,005) AskTrumpSupporters (1, 007 ,590)
socialism (1, 082 ,305) worldnews (38, 851 ,904) TheDonald (21, 792 ,999)
demsocialist (5269) law (464,236) newright (25,166)
Liberal (151,350) Conservative (1, 929 ,977)
teaparty (1976)

Table 1: Subreddits assigned to each category, with thetotalposts in each. Since there are over 181M posts, we sample randomly within each category – the resulting number ofavailableposts for each category in this assignment is shown on the top row.

These data are stored on the teach.cs servers under/u/cs401/A1/data/. To save space, these files shouldonlybe accessed from that directory (and not copied). All data are in the JSONformat.

Copyright©c 2020, Frank Rudzicz, Chlo ́e Pou-Prom. All rights reserved.

Each datum has several fields of interest, including: ups: the integer number of upvotes. downs: the integer number of downvotes. score: [ups−downs] controversiality: a combination of the popularity of a post and the ratio between ups and downs. subreddit: the subreddit from which the post was sampled. author: the author ID. body: the main textual message of the post, and our primary interest. id: the unique identifier of the comment.

Your tasks

1 Pre-processing, tokenizing, and tagging [18 marks]

The comments, as given, are not in a form amenable to feature extraction for classification – there is too much ‘noise’. Therefore, the first step is to complete a Python program, in accordance with Section 5, that will read subsets of JSON files, and for each comment perform the following steps, in order, on the ‘body’ field of each selected comment:

  1. Replace all newline characters with spaces.
  2. Replace HTML character codes (i.e.,&...;) with their ASCII equivalent(see
  3. Remove all URLs (i.e., tokens beginning withhttporwww).
  4. Remove duplicate spaces between tokens.
    • Each token must now be separated by a single space.
  5. Apply the following steps using spaCy (see below):
    • Tagging: Tag each token with its part-of-speech. A tagged token consists of a word, the ‘/’ symbol, and the tag (e.g.,dog/NN). See below for information on how to use the tagging module. The tagger can make mistakes.
    • Lemmatization: Replace the token itself with thetoken.lemma. E.g.,words/NNSbecomes word/NNS. If the lemma begins with a dash (‘-’) when the token doesn’t (e.g.,-PRON-forI, just keep the token.
    • Sentence segmentation: Add a newline between each sentence. For this assignment, we will use spaCy’ssentencizercomponent to segment sentences in a post. Remember to also mark the end of the post with a newline (watch out for duplicates!).

spaCy:spaCy is a Python library for natural language processing tasks, especially in information extraction. Here, weonlyuse its ability to obtain part-of-speech tags and lemma, along with sentence segmentation. For example:

import spacy
nlp = spacy.load(’en_core_web_sm’, disable=[’parser’, ’ner’])
sentencizer = nlp.create_pipe("sentencizer")
utt = nlp(u"I know words. I have the best words")
for sent in utt.sents:
... print(sent.text)
... for token in sent:
... print(token.text, token.lemma_, token.pos_, token.tag_, token.dep_,
... token.shape_, token.is_alpha, token.is_stop)

Functionality:Thea1preproc.pyprogram reads a subset of the (static) input JSON files, retains the fields you care about, including ‘id’, which you’ll soon use as a key to obtain pre-computed features, and ‘body’, which is text that you preprocess and replace before saving the result to an output file. To each comment, also add acatfield, with the name of the file from which the comment was retrieved (e.g., ‘Left’, ‘Alt’,...). The program takes three arguments: your student ID (mandatory), the output file (mandatory), and the maximum number of lines to sample from each category file (optional; default=10,000). For example, if you are student 999123456 and want to createpreproc.json, you’d run:

python 999123456 -o preproc.json
The output ofa1preproc.pywill be used in Task 2.

Your task:Copy the template from/u/cs401/A1/code/ There are two functions you need to modify:

  1. Inpreproc1, fill out eachifstatement with the associated preprocessing step above.
  2. Inmain, replace the lines marked withTODOwith the code they describe. By default,args.a1dir points to/u/cs401/A1/, so load the data fromargs.a1dir’s data subdirectory.

For this section, you may only use standard Python libraries,exceptfor Step 5. For debugging, you are advised to either use a different input folder with your own JSON data, or pass strings directly topreproc1.

Subsampling:By default, you should only sample 10,000 lines from each of the Left, Center, Right, and Alt files, for a total of 40,000 lines. From each file, start sampling lines at index [ID%len(X)], where IDis your student ID, % is the modulo arithmetic operator, andlen(X) is the number of comments in the given input file (i.e.,len(data), once the JSON parse is done). Use circular list indexing if your start index is too close to the ‘end’.

2 Feature extraction [22 marks]

The second step is to complete a Python program, in accordance with
Section 5, that takes the preprocessed comments from Task 1, extracts features that are relevant to bias
detection, and builds an npzdatafile that will be used to train models and classify comments in Task 3.
For each comment, you need to extract 173 features and write these, along with the category, to a single
NumPy array. These features are listed below. Several of these features involve counting tokens based
on their tags. For example, counting the number ofadverbsin a comment involves counting the number
of tokens that have been tagged as RB, RBR, or RBS. Table 4 explicitly defines some of these features
(many of which we have provided as constants in the template); other definitions are available on CDF in
/u/cs401/Wordlists/. You may copy and modify these files, but do not change their filenames.
  1. Number of words in uppercase (≥3 letters long)
  2. Number of first-person pronouns
  3. Number of second-person pronouns
  4. Number of third-person pronouns
  5. Number of coordinating conjunctions
  6. Number of past-tense verbs
  7. Number of future-tense verbs
  8. Number of commas
  9. Number of multi-character punctuation tokens
  10. Number of common nouns
  11. Number of proper nouns
  12. Number of adverbs
  13. Number ofwh-words
  14. Number of slang acronyms
  15. Average length of sentences, in tokens
  16. Average length of tokens, excluding punctuation-only tokens, in characters
  17. Number of sentences.
  18. Average of AoA (100-700) from Bristol, Gilhooly, and Logie norms
  19. Average of IMG from Bristol, Gilhooly, and Logie norms
  20. Average of FAM from Bristol, Gilhooly, and Logie norms
  21. Standard deviation of AoA (100-700) from Bristol, Gilhooly, and Logie norms
  22. Standard deviation of IMG from Bristol, Gilhooly, and Logie norms
  23. Standard deviation of FAM from Bristol, Gilhooly, and Logie norms
  24. Average of V.Mean.Sum from Warringer norms
  25. Average of A.Mean.Sum from Warringer norms
  26. Average of D.Mean.Sum from Warringer norms
  27. Standard deviation of V.Mean.Sum from Warringer norms
  28. Standard deviation of A.Mean.Sum from Warringer norms
  29. Standard deviation of D.Mean.Sum from Warringer norms

30-173. LIWC/Receptivitifeatures

Note:All of the provided wordlists contain tokens in lowercase. After extracting feature 1 above, you
may convert the tokens in the comment to lowercase as well. Take care to modify only the text and not
the PoS tags , i.e,Dog/NNshould becomedog/NNand notdog/nn.

Functionality:Thea1extractFeatures.pyprogram reads a preprocessed JSON file and extracts features for each comment therein, producing and saving aD×174 NumPy array, where theithrow is the features for theithcomment, followed by an integer for the class (0: Left, 1: Center, 2: Right, 3: Alt), as per thecatJSON field. The program takes two arguments: the input filename (i.e., the output ofa1preproc), and the output filename. For example, given inputpreproc.jsonand the desired outputfeats.npz, you’d run:

python -i preproc.json -o feats.npz
The output ofa1extractFeatures.pywill be used in Task 3.

Your task:Copy the template from /u/cs401/A1/code/ There are two functions you need to modify:

  1. Inextract1, extract each the first 29 of the aforementioned features from the input string. Features 30-173 should be extracted inextract2.
  2. Inmain, callextract1andextract2on each datum and add the results (+ the class) to thefeats array.

When your feature extractor works to your satisfaction, buildfeats.npz, from all input data.

Norms:Lexical norms are aggregate subjective scores given to words by a large group of individuals. Each type of norm assigns a numerical value to each word. Here, we use two sets of norms:

Bristol+GilhoolyLogie:These are found in /u/cs401/Wordlists/BristolNorms+GilhoolyLogie.csv, specifically the fourth, fifth, and sixth columns. These measure the Age-of-acquisition (AoA), image- ability (IMG), and familiarity (FAM) of each word, which we can use to measure lexical complexity. More information can be found, for example, here. Warringer: These are found in /u/cs401/Wordlists/RatingsWarrineretal.csv, specifically the third, sixth, and ninth columns. These norms measure the valence (V), arousal (A), and dominance (D) of each word, according to the VADmodel of human affect and emotion. More information on this particular data set can be found here.

When you compute features 18-29, only consider those words that exist in the respective norms file. Assume the default value for all of the above features to be zero.Treat the mean and standard deviation of zero words to be zero.

LIWC/Receptiviti:The Linguistic Inquiry & Word Count (LIWC) tool has been a standard in a variety of NLP research, especially around authorship and sentiment analysis. This tool provides 85 measures mostly related to word choice; more information can be found here. The company Receptiviti provides a superset of these features, which also includes 59 measures of personality derived from text. The company has graciously donated access to its API for the purposes of this course. To simplify things, we have already extracted these 144 features for you. Simply copy the pre-computed features from the appropriateuncompressednpyfiles stored in/u/cs401/A1/feats/. Specifically:

  1. Comment IDs are stored in IDs.txtfiles (e.g.,AltIDs.txt). When processing a comment, find the index (row)iof the ID in the appropriate ID text file, for the category, and copy the 144 elements of that row from the associated feats.dat.npyfile.
  2. The filefeats.txtprovides the names of these features, in the order provided. For this assignment, these names will suffice as to their meaning, but you are welcome to obtain your own API license from Receptivitiin order to get access to their documentation.

3 Experiments and classification [30 marks]

The third step is to use the features extracted in Task 2 to classify comments using the scikit-learnmachine learning package. Here, you will modify various hyper-parameters and interpret the results analytically. As everyone has different slices of the data, there are no expectations on overallaccuracy, but you are expected to discuss your findings with scientific rigour. Copy the template from/u/cs401/A1/code/ and complete themainbody and the functions for the following experiments according to the specifications therein. The program takes two arguments: the input feature file (the output ofa1extractFeatures), and an output directory.

python -i feats.npz -o.

You should create the output directory if it doesn’t already exist. In main, you are expected to load the data from the input file, partition the input into a train and test set, and call the experiment functions in order. Use thetraintestsplitmethod to split the data into a random 80% for training and 20% for testing. For part 3.3, use the entire loaded data set.

3.1 Classifiers

Train the following 5 classifiers (see hyperlinks for API) withfit(Xtrain, ytrain):

  1. SGDClassifier: support vector machine with a linear kernel.
  2. GaussianNB: a Gaussian naive Bayes classifier.
  3. RandomForestClassifier: with a maximum depth of 5, and 10 estimators.
  4. MLPClassifier: A feed-forward neural network, withα= 0.05.
  5. AdaBoostClassifier: with the default hyper-parameters.

Here,Xtrainis the first 173 columns of your training data, andytrainis the last column. Obtain predicted labels with these classifiers usingpredict(Xtest), whereXtestis the first 173 columns of your testing data. Obtain the 4×4 confusion matrixCusingconfusionmatrix. Given that the element at rowi, columnj inC(i.e.,ci,j) is the number of instances belonging to classithat were classified as classj, compute the following manually, using the associated function templates: Accuracy : the total number of correctly classified instances over all classifications:A=

∑ ∑ici,i i,jci,j. Recall:for each classκ, the fraction of cases that are truly classκthat were classified asκ,R(κ) =∑cκ,κ jcκ,j


Precision :for each classκ, the fraction of cases classified asκthat truly areκ,P(κ) =∑ciκ,κci,κ. Write the results to the text filea13.1.txtin the output directory. You must write to file using the format strings provided in the template.If you do not follow the format, you may receive a mark of zero. For each classifier, you will print the accuracy, recall, precision, and confusion matrix. You may include a written analysis if you are so inclined, but only after the results.

3.2 Amount of training data

Many researchers attribute the success of modern machine learning to the sheer volume of data that is now available. Modify the amount of data that is used to train your preferred classifier from above in five increments: 1K, 5K, 10K, 15K, and 20K. These can be sampled arbitrarily from the training set in Section 3.1.Using only the classification algorithm with the highest accuracy from Section 3.1, report the accuracies of the classifier to the filea13.2.txtusing the format string provided in the template. On one or more lines following the reported accuracies, comment on the changes to accuracy as the number of training samples increases, including at least two sentences on a possible explanation. Is there an expected trend? Do you see such a trend? Hypothesize as to why or why not.

3.3 Feature analysis

Certain features may be more or less useful for classification, and too many can lead to overfitting or other problems. Here, you will select the best features for classification usingSelectKBestaccording to the fclassif metric as in:

from sklearn.feature_selection import SelectKBest
from sklearn.feature_selection import f_classif
selector = SelectKBest(f_classif, you_figure_it_out)
X_new = selector.fit_transform(X_train, y_train)
pp = selector.pvalues_

In the example above,ppstores thep-value associated with doing aχ^2 statistical test on each feature. A smaller value means the associated feature better separates the classes. Do this:

  1. For the 32k training set and each number of featuresk={ 5 , 50 }, find the bestkfeatures according to this approach. Write the associated p-values to a13.3.txtusing the format strings provided.
  2. Train the best classifier from section 3.1 for each of the 1K training set and the 32K training set, using only the bestk= 5 features. Write the accuracies on the full test set of both classifiers to a13.3.txtusing the format strings provided.
  3. Extract the indices of the topk= 5 features using the 1K training set and take the intersection with thek= 5 features using the 32K training set. Write using the format strings provided.
  4. Format the topk= 5 feature indices extracted from the 32K training set to file using the format string provided.
  5. Following the above, answer the following questions: (a) Provide names for the features found in the above intersection of the topk= 5 features. If any, provide a possible explanation as to why these features may be especially useful.

(b) Arep-values generally higher or lower given more or less data? Why or why not? (c) Name the top 5 features chosen for the 32K training case. Hypothesize as to why those particular features might differentiate the classes.

3.4 Cross-validation

Many papers in machine learning stick with a single subset of data for training and another for testing (occasionally with a third for validation). This may not be the most honest approach. Is the best classifier from Section 3.1reallythe best? For each of the classifiers in Section 3.1, run 5-fold cross-validation given all the initially available data. Specifically, useKFold.Set the shuffle argument to true. For each fold, obtain accuracy on the test partition after training on the rest for each classifier. Report the mean accuracy of each classifier across the 5 folds in the order specified in 3.1 toa13.4.txtusing the format strings provided. Next, determine whether the accuracy of your best classifier, across the 5 folds, issignificantlybetter than any others. I.e., given vectorsaandb, one for each classifier, containing the accuracy values for each of the respective 5 folds, obtain thep-value from the outputS, below:

from scipy import stats
S = stats.ttest_rel(a, b)

You should have 4p-values. Report them using the provided format string in the same order as the accura- cies, excluding the self-comparison. For example, if the best classifier from 3.1 was theRandomForestClassifier, then thep-values should be reported in the order: 1 vs. 3, 2 vs. 3, 4 vs. 3, 5 vs. 3.

4 Bonus [15 marks]

We will give up to 15 bonus marks for innovative work going substantially beyond the minimal requirements. These marks can make up for marks lost in other sections of the assignment, but your overall mark for this assignment cannot exceed 100%. The obtainable bonus marks will depend on the complexity of the undertaking, and are at the discretion of the marker. Importantly, your bonus work should not affect our ability to mark the main body of the assignment in any way. You may decide to pursue any number of tasks of your own design related to this assignment, although you should consult with the instructor or the TA before embarking on such exploration. Certainly, the rest of the assignment takes higher priority. Some ideas:

  • Identify words that the PoS tagger tags incorrectlyand add code that fixes those mistakes. Does this code introduce new errors elsewhere? E.g., if you always tagdogas a noun to correct a mistake, you will encounter errors whendogshould be a verb. How can you mitigate such errors?
  • Explorealternative featuresto those extracted in Task 2. What other kinds of variables would be useful in distinguishing affect? Consider, for example, the Stanford Deep Learning for Sentiment Analysis. Test your features empirically as you did in Task 3 and discuss your findings.
  • Explorealternative classification methodsto those used in Task 3. Explore different hyper- parameters. Which hyper-parameters give the best empirical performance, and why?
  • Learn abouttopic modellingas in latent Dirichlet allocation. Are there topics that have an effect on the accuracy of the system? E.g., is it easier to tell how someone feels about politicians or about events? People or companies? As there may be class imbalances in the groups, how would you go about evaluating this? Go about evaluating this.

5 General specifications

As part of grading your assignment, the grader may run your programs and/or python files on test data and configurations that you have not previously seen. This may be partially done automatically by scripts. It is therefore important that each of your programs precisely meets all the specifications, including its name and the names of the files and functions that it uses. A program that cannot be evaluated because it varies from specifications will receive zero marks on the relevant sections. The flag--a1dircan be used to specify an alternate location than/u/cs401/A1to load data from, though the submitted files should be generated on the CDF machines. Donothardwire the absolute address of your home directory within the program; the grader does not have access to this directory. All your programs must contain adequate internal documentation to be clear to the graders. We use Python version 3.7.

6 Submission requirements

This assignment is submitted electronically. You should submit:

  1. All your code,, helper files, if any).
  2. a13.1.txt: Report on classifiers.
  3. a13.2.txt: Report on the amount of training data.
  4. a13.3.txt: Report on feature analysis.
  5. a13.4.txt: Report on 5-fold cross-validation.
  6. Any lists of words that you modified from the original version.

In another file calledID(use the template on the course web page), provide the following information:

  1. your first and last name.
  2. your student number.
  3. your CDF/teach.cs login id.
  4. your preferred contact email address.
  5. whether you are an undergraduate or graduate.
  6. this statement:By submitting this file, I declare that my electronic submission is my own work, and is in accordance with the University of Toronto Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters and the Code of Student Conduct, as well as the collaboration policies of this course.

You do not need to hand in any files other than those specified above.Submit your assignment on MarkUs. Donottarorcompressyour files, and do not place your files in subdirectories. Do not format your discussion as a PDF or Word document — use plain text only.

7 Working outside the lab

If you want to do some or all of this assignment on your laptop or home computer, for example, you will have to do the extra work of downloading and installing the requisite software and data. If you take this route, you take on all associated risks. You are strongly advised to upload regular backups of your work to CDF/teach.cs, so that if your home machine fails or proves to be inadequate, you can immediately continue working on the assignment at CDF/teach.cs. When you have completed the assignment, you should try your programs out on CDF/teach.cs to make sure that they run correctly there. Any component that does not work on CDF will get zero marks.

Appendix: Tables

Tag Name Example CC Coordinating conjunction and CD Cardinal number three DT Determiner the EX Existentialthere there [is] FW Foreign word d’oeuvre IN Preposition or subordinating in, of, like conjunction JJ Adjective green, good JJR Adjective, comparative greener, better JJS Adjective, superlative greenest, best LS List item marker (1) MD Modal could, will NN Noun, singular or mass table NNS Noun, plural tables NNP Proper noun, singular John NNPS Proper noun, plural Vikings PDT Predeterminer both [the boys] POS Possessive ending ’s, ’ PRP Personal pronoun I, he, it PRP$ Possessive pronoun my, his, its RB Adverb however, usually, naturally, here, good RBR Adverb, comparative better RBS Adverb, superlative best RP Particle [give] up SYM Symbol (mathematical or scientific) + TO to to [go] to [him] UH Interjection uh-huh VB Verb, base form take VBD Verb, past tense took VBG Verb, gerund or present participle taking VBN Verb, past participle taken VBP Verb, non-3rd-person singular presenttake VBZ Verb, 3rd-person singular present takes WDT wh-determiner which WP wh-pronoun who, what WP$ Possessivewh-pronoun whose WRB wh-adverb where, when

Table 2: The Penn part-of-speech tagset—words

Tag Name Example

Pound sign £

$ Dollar sign $

. Sentence-final punctuation !, ?,. , Comma : Colon, semi-colon, ellipsis ( Left bracket character ) Right bracket character " Straight double quote ‘ Left open single quote “ Left open double quote ’ Right close single quote ” Right close double quote

Table 3: The Penn part-of-speech tagset—punctuation

First person: I, me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours Second person: you, your, yours, u, ur, urs Third person: he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, theirs Future Tense: ’ll, will, gonna, going+to+VB Common Nouns: NN, NNS Proper Nouns: NNP, NNPS Adverbs: RB, RBR, RBS wh-words : WDT, WP, WP$, WRB Modern slang acronyms: smh, fwb, lmfao, lmao, lms, tbh, rofl, wtf, bff, wyd, lylc, brb, atm, imao, sml, btw, bw, imho, fyi, ppl, sob, ttyl, imo, ltr, thx, kk, omg, omfg, ttys, afn, bbs, cya, ez, f2f, gtr, ic, jk, k, ly, ya, nm, np, plz, ru, so, tc, tmi, ym, ur, u, sol, fmlConsider also, if you want, for no-bonus completion.

Table 4: Miscellaneous feature category specifications.